Production Of Semi-Tropical Mushroom (Oyster Mushroom)

oyster mushroomPreparation Of Potato-Dextrose-Agar (Pda)

Raw Materials

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Fresh good quality potatoes 200 g
Dextrose powder 20 g
Agar bar (gulaman) 20 g
Distilled water 1 L

Procedure

  1. Wash, peel and dice the potatoes. Place 200 g in a casserole where water has started to boil and allow to boil until potatoes are soft enough for the pallate.
  2. Strain the broth (decoction) through cheesecloth. Restore the volume of decoction to 1 L and put back into the casserole.
  3. Add the agar (chipped) and the dextrose powder. Heat while stirring occasionally until the agar dissolves.
  4. Dispense 30 mL in each flat rhum bottle and plug the mouth with the bottle cotton.
  5. Sterilize the medium in a pressure cooker at 121°C or 15-lb. pressure for 15 minutes. Immediately after sterilization, slant the test tubes at an angle of 20 to 25 degrees, making sure that the agar does not touch the cotton plug.
  6. Lay the bottles flat on the table until the agar congeals.

Preparation Of Substrates (Fruiting Bags)

  1. Mix the following materials thoroughly:
    • Sawdust, dried sieve – 78%
    • Rice bran, class A – 20%
    • Calcium carbonate – 1%
    • Refined sugar – 1%
  2. Add tap water sparingly until the mixture reaches approximately 65-70% moisture. When a handful of the mixture is pressed in the palm of the hand and no water runs off in between the fingers and will stay in form after the release of pressure, the 65-70% moisture is reached.
  3. Pile and pack the substrate in pyramidal form.
  4. Cover with plastic sheet and incubate for 5 days. Re-pile on the 3rd day.
  5. On the fifth day, aerate the piled material by spreading the material thinly in a shaded area to remove the toxic gases produced during the fermentation period.
  6. Note : Do not spread the material under the sun

  7. Pack 1 kg of the material in PP bags after 2-3 hours aeration. The smell of the toxic gas is removed and its moisture is re-adjusted to 65-70% level.
  8. Collect the upper part of the plastic bag and pass it thru PVC pipe ring (1” dia. x 1” length), then pull the plastic thru this pipe. Hold the free end of the plastic bag with a rubber band.
  9. Plug the bag with cotton and provide with paper to lessen moisture uptake during the sterilization process.
  10. Sterilize the packed mixture at 15-lb pressure for 1 – 1½ hours.
  11. Cool the substrate. This is now ready for inoculation with Pl sp mold grown on PDA or sorghum grains.

PROPAGATION OF THE MUSHROOM MOLD

  1. Inoculate the PDA with young and pure culture of the Pleurotus mold.
  2. Incubate the pure culture at 25°C for two weeks or until the full ramification of mycelium is observed. (This is now termed as subculture.) This is now ready for the inoculation of mother spawn.

PREPARATION OF THE MOTHER SPAWN

  1. Wash the sorghum grains thoroughly under running tap water.
  2. Place in a casserole, cover with water at about 2” above grain level.
  3. Bring to a boil with occasional stirring to test the grains.
  4. Stop boiling when grains are just about to burst (malabo/maligat stage).
  5. Immediately strain water to prevent grains from becoming overcooked. Use fine screen or cheesecloth for the purpose.
  6. Cook briskly. When grains are merely damp, distribute in empty flat rhum bottles. One kilo will make 10 bottles.
  7. Plug bottles with absorbent cotton, support with a piece of paper and rubber band. Sterilize at 15 psi for 15 minutes. Then cool.
  8. Inoculate with 15-day old pure culture of the mold. (parent-tissue culture).
  9. Incubate at 28-30°C until the whole medium is fully impregnated with the mushroom mold (normally 10-15 days).

These are now the mother spawns, one of which will be good for 25 to 30 spawn bags.

INOCULATION OF SUBSTRATE WITH GRAIN SPAWNS

  1. Sterilize the inoculating needle in the flame of the alcohol lamp.
  2. Scrape the fully ramified grain spawn with the use of the inoculating needle.
  3. Flame the tip of the fruiting bag as well as the rhum bottle containing the grain spawn before transfer.
  4. Inoculate the sterilized/cooled substrate with fully ramified grain spawn.
  5. Incubate the above at 25 -28ºC for 30-45 days.
  6. Ramify the mold in the substrate.
  7. Open the ramified substrate for fruiting.

FRUITING

WHERE TO PLACE THE FRUITING BAGS

  • Place the bags in a clean and cool area of the house (temperature approximately 25° to 28°C).
  • Leave the bags there for at least 4 days to allow acclimatization before opening the bags.
  • Space under the sink can also serve as growing area but make sure that it is clean and safe from insects and rodents.
  • A bench atop a pan of water can also be used to hold the bags.
  • Watch out for the fruits. Development usually starts 3 to 4 days after opening.

HARVESTING

  • Do this with bare hands. Gently hold the stem and pull out the mushrooms.

CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF BAGS

  • Spray water gently on the surface of the bags if they dry up. Never do this when pinheads appear. This will cause heavy decay of the mushroom fruit bodies.
  • Cut the opposite end of the bags to allow for more fruiting.
  • Scrape the exposed areas from where mushrooms have been harvested using a sharp knife. Do this after each harvest.
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NOTE: Fruiting bags last for three months with approximately 8 harvests/flushes provided proper care and management have been applied to bags/growing houses/chambers.

QTY

UNIT

PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT

1

unit

cooking casserole
(2-li cap)

1

unit

cooking casserole
(4-li cap)

1

unit

chopping board

1

unit

working table,
SS made 4″x8″

1

unit

top balance
(100-gram cap)

1

unit

gas stove, 3 burners
(with tank)

2

units

wood ladle

1

unit

pressure cooker
(41 qts.)

1

unit

isolation chamber (fabricated)

1

unit

scalpel blade

2

pcs

inoculating needle

1

unit

shovel

1

pc

stapler

20

m

hose w/ nozzle

2

units

garden scissor

1

unit

siever

1

unit

weighing scale
(50-kg cap)

4

units

weighing scale
(10-gram cap)

1

unit

drum (90-100 bags)

4

yds

cheesecloth

1

unit

alcohol lamp

1

pc

scalper holder

Source: mis.dost.gov.ph