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How to Make Organic Fertilizer

Bioorganic Fertilizer (BOF) From Coir Dust And Animal Manures

Organic FertilizersBioorganic Fertilizer (BOF) is a processed inoculated compost from any organic material that has undergone rapid decomposition by the introduction of homogeneous microbial inoculants. This is different from fresh organic fertilizer where natural decay process is brought about by the action of heterogeneous microbes present in the organic matter. Compared with the traditional composting method, microbial inoculation hastens the decomposition from three months to just 3-4 weeks.
Inoculants are commercially available in selected areas in the country but could be easily accessed. Trichoderma harzianum , a single celled fungus hastens the decomposition of organic materials especially those high in lignin and cellulose like rice straw, coir dust, bagasse and weeds. Commercial inoculants i.e Greenmix, Mabijon composter are enriched with other beneficial microbes like the nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azotobacter.

Can I make organic fertilizer? To produce quality organic fertilizer, plant residues like coir dust, bagasse, mudpress, rice straw etc. must be mixed with animal residues. Leguminous plants could be part of the substrate to substitute part of the manure.


I. Raw materials: The amount depends on the desired quantity of heap and ratio of plant residue and animal manures which could be 1:1, 2:1 or 1:2. For a 4 ton heap at 1:1 ratio you need:
a) Coir dust (2T)
b) Chicken manure (1T)
c) Swine manure (1T)
d) Inoculant (1% of weight of raw material-40kg)

II. Small tools and implement
a) rakes
b) shovel
c) spading fork
d) sprinklers or water hose
e) plastic laminated sack as cover
f) wheelbarrow
g) Weighing scale
h) Siever (wire mesh size of ¼ of an inch)
i) Protective wear: gloves, mask, hat, boots

How to Make Organic Fertilizer

I. Site selection:
The ideal composting site is shaded and well drained and near a source of water. However, open areacould be used. Four tons of agricultural waste can be composted in a space measuring 4m x 6m.

II. Preparation of raw materials: Collect the required amount of coir dust, chicken manure and swine manure. Discard stones, plastics,metals and other non-biodegradable materials. Note their moisture content and weights. Divide coir dust into three parts.

III. Piling of materials

Step 1. Spread 1/3 of coir dust as the first layer.Water to about 60%moisture content.Press the sample inyour palm and when the water does not fall freely, then it is almost within the right water content. Apply the required amount of inoculant on top (0.5% of the weight of the material in a layer.)

Step 2. Spread evenly the chicken manure on top, water and inoculate.

Step 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 but use swine manure instead of chicken manure. Apply the inoculant on top of the fourth layer combining the weight of materials in the fourth and fifth layers.

Step 4. As the topmost layer, spread evenly coir dust but do not inoculate. This serves as a buffer for odor.

Step 5. Cover the heap with laminated plastic sack to conserve moisture and prevent rainwater fromgetting into the pile.Incubate for 4-7 days.

IV. Mixing and turning over

Step 6. After 4-7 days, turn and mix thoroughly the materials. Water if needed during turning.Return the cover.Repeat step 6 at weekly interval.

V. Harvesting, sieving and further processing

Step 7. After three or four weeks, harvest the material. Ripe compost has dark brown toblack color, nooffensive smell,temperature is ambient and with 35% moisture content or lower. Screen the organic fertilizerthrough manual siever or mechanical sifter.

Step 8. Inoculate the sifted material with 0.5% of the inoculant, store for three days under shade.

Step 9. Put BOF in 50 kg plastic lined sack and seal. Do not pile directly on concrete flooring butprovide wooden platform and stack not more than10 sacks high. Store not more than 6 months in anaerated but dry area.

QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES: For a good quality bioorganic fertilizer,observe these points:

1) Separate the dry materials from wet ones.

2) Monitor periodically the temperature of the heap. It must be within the right temperature range. The heapmust heat up over 400C 24hours after heaping. Within the first week, desired temperature is 40-500C. Ifthis temperature is not reached, check wetness ofthe materials. Remove the cover, turn over the heap to allow excess moisture to escape. Temperature must reached up to 620C.

3) For a product to be registered with the FPA as pure organic fertilizer, it must have 5-7% total NPK with at least 1.5% N and at least 10% carbon. The organic matter must be 10% and above with a neutral to slightly alkaline pH.


1. increases yield and improves quality of crops

2. improves soil structure: better soil aeration,increases water-holding capacity

3. improves chemical properties of soil: corrects acidity, restores soil fertility by enriching soil with trace and other micro nutrients and organic matter

4. restores microbial balance and enriches soil with microfauna


The rate of application depends on the kind of crop to be fertilized. BOF application ranges from10-20 bags /ha or 2-6 kg/tree for bearing plantation crop like coconut. Initially, this recommendation must be combined with 50% of the recommended rate of inorganic fertilizers.


1. Reduced dependence on inorganic fertilizers
2. Renewable and locally available raw materials
3. Contribute to proper waste disposal
4. Generate employment opportunity
5. Contribute to biodiversity
6. Lessen environmental pollution


_ % recovery – 75 operation time –30 days
_ 4 tons of raw materials

Organic Fertilizers

Source: Philippine Coconut Authority

Write or call:
Agronomy & Soils Division
Davao Research Center
Philippine Coconut Authority
Bago Oshiro, Davao City
Tel. No. (082) 293-0161
E-mail: pcaasd@pldtdsl.com

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By Blogsdna

Posted by on August 31, 2008.

Tags: , ,

Categories: Agri Business

62 Responses

  1. Very interesting! Would you have a similar process with crushed lime as major ingredient? Appreciate if you can guide me to the write site. thanks and rgds

    by JH Stehmeier on Nov 5, 2008 at 6:47 pm

  2. All natural and friendly! Pwede po ba gamitin ang dayami at ipa ng palay? Kami po ay sa Macangcong MPC nais naming gumawa ng organic fertilizer, Maari po ba ninyo kaming bigyan ng procedure sa paggawa ng fertilizer na gamit ang dayami at ipa. Salamat po.

    by Virgilio Gomez on Dec 20, 2008 at 10:06 pm

  3. Thanks po sa comment ninyo. Hayaan niyo susubukan kong maghanap nang paggawa ng organic fertilizer gamit ang dayami.

    by Manuel on Jan 4, 2009 at 1:35 pm

  4. Paano po i prepare ang swine manure.

    by maila on Jan 21, 2009 at 5:16 pm

  5. We need the knowledge of organic agriculture in the undeveloped world like my country Zambia where the supply of chemical fertilizers in inadequate and unaffordable by rural communities. I ve already acquired a 28 hactare piece of land. I need to team up with other interested farmers but there is no sensitization on organic fertilizers in Zambia, please help if you can.

    by Isaac Mungwala on Feb 20, 2009 at 9:10 pm

  6. @maila I’ll try to find articles about swine manure preparation, For the meantime you can search the internet for it.

    by Manuel on Feb 21, 2009 at 3:08 pm

  7. @Isaac Mungwala I’ll try to find more articles in organic farming. For the meantime I’m sure the internet have much more to offer.

    by Manuel on Feb 21, 2009 at 3:24 pm

  8. Congrats po for the know how on organic fertilizer making. Im trying to start it in our parish in Bolinao pangasinan. Can you share more on how to make organic fertilizer using the iniling na ipa and how many percent is the manure, coco coir animal manure and dayami. We have plenty of materials here. Thanks and please continue sharing your knowledge and time to humanity. God bless your endevour Fr. June

    by Fr. June Ranera, RCJ on Feb 22, 2009 at 3:22 pm

  9. Hi. Can you send me some pictures on how to set up bioorganic fertilizer? I run a poultry in Cebu and would like to start BOF. Thanks you for your information.

    by Gilbert Tan on Jun 11, 2009 at 9:40 pm

  10. @Gilbert Tan You can contact Philippine Coconut Authority for some pictures of bioorganic fertilizer using this email: pcaasd@pldtdsl.com

    by Manuel on Jun 12, 2009 at 4:18 pm

  11. good day!!! how about the profit of this knd of business, can you please post the yearly profit in this business!! thanks

    by angelique on Jun 20, 2009 at 9:57 am

  12. I would like to known about new technique for compose of straw mushroom production. I will glad to received your information. And I will wait the answer.

    by Neo on Jul 16, 2009 at 4:37 pm

  13. Dear Sir, I respectfully request from your good office regarding the making of Organic Fertilizer. Kindly furnish us the simpliest method of making the said Organic Fertilizer, because we have no enough chicken dung and swine manure in our place. Hoping to hear from you soon. Sincerely, Rene Jumalon Ontoy

    by Rene Jumalon Ontoy on Oct 10, 2009 at 12:56 pm

  14. ung coir dust poh ba prang dayami..? SANA POH PEDE..

    by realyn on Dec 1, 2009 at 10:35 pm

  15. YUNG COIR DUST PO BA PRNG DAYAMI,.? pede po bng un ang gmtin? mgnda poh ang frtlizer … nka22long po ito at nkakabawas ng polusyon.. mron po ba i2ng abstract? introduction? background of the study? statement of a problem? what are the characteristics of a good problem? hyphotesis? significance of the study? scope and limitation? definition of terms? conceptual? and operational? tnx po……….!!!!!! plsx.. pkilabas nmn po.. please! khit di po kumpleto basta bigyan neo po aq ng panimla!……. tnx…….(n’ T.C.)

    by realyn on Dec 1, 2009 at 10:46 pm

  16. Dear Sir, Kindly furnish us the procedures of making organic fertilizer using mudpress only. Truly yours, Armando T. Panique

    by armando t. panique on Jan 18, 2010 at 10:34 pm

  17. how to prepare a fertilizer from chicken manure

    by ezra on Feb 6, 2010 at 2:05 pm

  18. ahm.. panuh poh mapapadali ang process ng pagawa ng organic fertilizer na gamit lang eh chicken manure

    by Anna Lyn Hernandez on Feb 18, 2010 at 2:52 pm

  19. @Anna Lyn Hernandez I’ll try to research about that topic and post it on this blog.

    by Manuel on Feb 18, 2010 at 6:57 pm

  20. In order to make good quality organic fertilizer you should add bacteria (microbes)to it. just follow the procedure . I use a soil conditioner/inoculant because it have many microbes, rhizo, mycorhiza, azobacteria etc. Just email me about this topic including fertilization protocol of different plants and trees. I use no pesticides in my farm…

    by Carmelo D Verdan on Feb 22, 2010 at 10:01 pm

  21. ..malaking 2long po ung article nyo para po sa research project nmin..ask ko lng po sana if we can use the same procedures in making organic fertilizer from dried mahogany leaves??? pakalat-kalat lang po kasi sa school namin ung mga mahogany leaves..I’ll wait for your reply po..tnx po=)

    by Angelica Musni on Mar 17, 2010 at 1:46 pm

  22. @Angelica Musni Siguro naman pwede kasi organic material din yun at wala namang problema kahit anong dahon ang gamitin mo. Unlike if you are using it as hebal medicine, syempre dapat yung tamang herbal plants ang kailangan. I have another post making chicken manure compost here: http://www.thefilipinoentrepreneur.com/2010/02/21/organic-fertilizer-chicken-manure.htm

    by Manuel on Mar 18, 2010 at 11:54 am

  23. Ana Lyn and Angelica email me at cdverdan@yahoo.com you”re respective email address so I send the request…

    by Carmelo D Verdan on Mar 18, 2010 at 10:44 pm

  24. All kinds of leaves, coco coir and dust and other decomposable material can be make to compost then to humus as time goes. but this can be done thru use of microbes (soil conditioner/inoculant). Use just drench or spray it to file…. in less than a month you have a BOF/compost. But this is one aspect of plant nutrition in order for plant to grow healthy and pesticide free. Chicken and hog manure can be spray by the microbes.

    by Carmelo D Verdan on Mar 18, 2010 at 11:45 pm

  25. thank you po.. pwede po bang gmiting substitute sa inoculants ung mga fungi na present on trees??as much as possible po kasi eh ayaw naming gumastos ng malaki kasi po ung school nmin ung mgpoprovide ng expenses for the project..kaya po kung pwedeng maghanap ng substitute eh un nlang po ung gagamitin nmin..

    by angelica musni on May 14, 2010 at 4:47 pm

  26. Based on your observation or experiment..what fungi are present on trees…

    by Carmelo D Verdan on May 15, 2010 at 12:39 am

  27. i want to start a business for making organic ferilizer in bulacan

    by ARTHUR on May 16, 2010 at 2:14 am

  28. can you help me to start a business for making organic fertilizer in san miguel ,bulacan

    by ARTHUR on May 16, 2010 at 2:16 am

  29. Arthur, good day.. I can be of help to you. what are the materials available in your farm.. email me at cdverdan@yahoo.com that is also my YM ID..thanks

    by Carmelo D Verdan on May 16, 2010 at 3:04 pm

  30. color white un…ang nagsuggest po nun ay ung adviser nmin sa research..bka daw po kasi pwedeng gamiting substitute un..fungi din naman daw po kasi un..

    by angelica musni on May 16, 2010 at 7:13 pm

  31. Can anyone recommend where I can buy Organic fertilizer – ideally in tagaytay or Cavite 0r Malolos , Bulacan Long term i will make my own – but for now i need to buy some Thanks

    by colin richards on Jun 24, 2010 at 9:51 pm

  32. Could you please advise me where i can buy bok choy seed from philiphine.and also i need the to know the supplier to produce huge quantity chicken manure and goat thanks

    by ahmad on Jun 26, 2010 at 3:16 pm

  33. Dear Carmelo, I am very much interested in making organic manure for sale. I read your article on a certain website and even got more enthusiastic about the whole idea based on the fact that my country relies very much less on inorganic fertilizers. The primary raw materials available in the area I intend to do this is organic wastes especially plant products disposed of as garbage from the city markets. I have also started doing poultry production though still on a small scale and believe this could be of use too. How should I go about it? Kind regards, Musa

    by Musa on Jun 29, 2010 at 5:09 pm

  34. uhm…just like others who posted their questions here..i also want to ask something about investigatory projects about making fertilizers… do you any suggested websites were i can get research articles w/c i can use for my rrl?…thats all..tnx..:D

    by lorena on Jul 20, 2010 at 8:49 pm

  35. Lorena, there are many websites you can find in the internet… Making your own fertilizer will be a tedious one you have to considered many aspects,, because right now in agriculture not only the NPK fertilizer is use you also the micronutrient which must be chelated.. The one I am using right now Growmore products because it is complete plant nutrition per se.. you can contact me thru my landline (02) 5292137 and email address: cdverdan@yahoo.com our group also conduct seminars to farmers,land owners, students etc..

    by Carmelo D Verdan on Jul 24, 2010 at 11:22 am

  36. Hi Sir! Do you have any idea or information on what is the best proportion of ingredient for an enhanced organic fertilizer?as in the amount or the proportion or percentage of each ingredient/component. A site that you could recommend could also be a great help. thanks!=) Also, We are from Davao City and we are looking for sources of coir dust, rice hull and animal manures, specifically chicken manure. Could you suggest some? Also, could these procedure be applied if we use the sludge from a local oil-producing company? Do you have any idea how? Or any site that could be of help?

    by Liza Villora on Aug 21, 2010 at 10:32 pm

  37. @Liza Villora Okay I’ll give you that site if I found one.

    by Manuel on Aug 22, 2010 at 12:40 pm

  38. how about the thing about the enhanced organic fertilizer? do you have anything to share?thanks!

    by Liza Villora on Aug 22, 2010 at 2:36 pm

  39. Hi, Is the process for making fertilizers from chicken droppings same from the process of making fertilizers from pigeon droppings?

    by goofy on Oct 8, 2010 at 11:38 pm

  40. Dear sir This is Eugene Tuki Makhanu From Kenya,please We need the knowledge of organic agriculture in the undeveloped world like my country Kenya the supply of chemical fertilizers is inadequate and unaffordable by rural communities,can you assist with the information on organic fertilizer preparation from Animal Manures and maize stake, and techniques on how to pack e.g 50kgs, make the fertilizer into granule form to enhance easy application and storage.thanks in anticipation. regards Eugene Tuki Makhanu

    by eugene tuki makhanu on Oct 21, 2010 at 6:19 pm

  41. Dear sir. i m frm tanzania.we need knowing of organic fertilizer for agricuture in the undeveloping country like tanzania.chemical fertilizer is inadequate and unafforable by rural communities.can u assit with the information on organic fertilizer preparation frm animal manures n maize stake etc.pl.if u have web site for organic fertilizer how to make recip of use diffrent type raw material. hopingto here frm you soon sincerly k.patel

    by k.patel on Dec 28, 2010 at 5:03 pm

  42. @k.patel I’ll try to find more procedures on making organic fertilizers for you.

    by Manuel on Dec 28, 2010 at 5:08 pm

  43. I live in Bangladesh. In our country chicken dung is available but other materials is not available. How can i make best organic fertilizer to my field and my business. Please give me information about the cost of open new company and business future. Mahfuz

    by Mahfuzur Rahman on Jan 18, 2011 at 12:26 am

  44. Dear sir, i am doing organic manure prodection ,and suppliying the base meterial in the mixed form of coir wast,wood powder,ash,tobcco wast,turmari wast, and ext. I can i have cetificate or licence from the agri department.

    by Sakthivel on Feb 4, 2011 at 11:19 pm

  45. Good day friends you can make a natural or organic fertilizer out of farm waste but it will take time to decompose. The trend in world agriculture is plant nutrition with emphasis on micronutrients. Our group which is called ZeePAGBIOS . you can use your chicken manure after 1-2 years in stock. you can know more about it calling our celpone 09293193198 or Dr. Lino Cortes at (632) 280-5571 to explain further or you can his seminar….

    by Carmelo D Verdan on Feb 6, 2011 at 11:05 am

  46. I am not clear about coir dust and inoculate. Please tell me about two materials. Also i am not clear about your costing. In Bangladesh what cost will be and market. Please give me answar

    by Mahfuzur Rahman on Feb 9, 2011 at 11:48 pm

  47. Good Day ! In our area source of coco dust is abundant. Can we ask contact numbers or contact person to help us or make a demo on how to process organic fertilizer using these coco dust or coco coir?. Thanks.

    by Minerva Alsado on Feb 11, 2011 at 1:20 pm

  48. sir, Good day..

    by glenn on Feb 11, 2011 at 1:27 pm

  49. Iam a student of University of Mindanao from Business administration department and i am Looking for some inputs and its costs with regards to the production of organic fertilizer. Sir, can you give us more information about price bracket in terms of manufacturing organic fertilizer.

    by glenn on Feb 11, 2011 at 1:32 pm

  50. …can you share with me on how to make my own Effective microorganisms( EM)? thanks and more power …to all organic lovers keep it up!!!

    by Normita Corral on Mar 9, 2011 at 7:57 am

  51. Could you tell me about how to produce of organic fertilizer > could you take in Video Clip for its please and send to me by above email address?

    by Som Borei on Mar 26, 2011 at 7:30 pm

  52. Could you tell me sir where can i buy greenmix and azotobacter?Thanks.

    by jhun malig on Apr 4, 2011 at 5:33 pm

  53. dear sir, I am planning to start a business in organic fertilizer using “Corn Cobs”, Please send me the procedures and other materials needed. Thank you and more power. Michael

    by Michael on Jul 23, 2011 at 5:58 pm

  54. studies conducted about dried mahogany leaves as an organic fertilizer

    by april on Sep 24, 2011 at 7:29 pm

  55. I see a few posts interested in starting organic fertilizer business which has very good potential in the world as people are trying to avoid chemical that is serious problems in health, environment, soil, pest control, and operation cost. I know farmers in Thailand have been increasingly and successfully making their own organic fertilizer and pesticide and make good profit saving money from buying chemicals from companies. Love to hear stories on organic fertilizer business startups.

    by jamesCA on Feb 9, 2012 at 6:28 am

  56. I am a student of University. For my project thesis any one help me share idea on how to make organic fertilizer from kitchen solid west? Shayon Mahmod

    by Shayon Mahmod on Mar 13, 2012 at 11:49 pm

  57. is it possible to use kusot(pinagtistisan ng kahoy) instead of coir dust? dont know where i can buy coir eh.. Appreciate the reply thanks

    by joey villanueva on Apr 17, 2012 at 7:02 pm

  58. it is possible to use kusot but you have to spray probiotics to compost it earlier or use vermi composting to fully enriched it. where are you from… In order to compost kusot earlier you have to use probiotics and if you are from quezon province and calabarzon contact: Gallali izm Farm Products at our website http://www.gallali.com or call (042) 651-2916 or celphone nrs. 09339366891 (sun) and 09163182454 (globe) look for albert or melo……

    by Carmelo D Verdan on Apr 22, 2012 at 11:23 am

  59. good day sir! i have an organic mix. a combination of chicken dung, carbonized rice hull and cocopeat.kindly provide me some information or advise with respect to the potency of the product. thank you very much and more power…

    by alfonso b. tan on Dec 4, 2012 at 1:10 pm

  60. hello sir sa site nyo about fertilizer nais ko n pasiglahin ung petchay ko kc po malata kc tag init may idea po b kayo regarding this situation?

    by estela p musni on Apr 4, 2013 at 11:43 am

  61. dear sir very pleased to go through mails/comments wich you recived, this shows that people appriciate the idea of organic fertilizer either for use or manufacturer . i appriciate your efforts for awearness and love to nature. plz also guide me as i can get 3-4 metric ton chicken manure and 3-4 m.ton waste vegetable espically banana wate means hanging parts. i wish you will be in more prosperity and peace kind regards asim riaz siddiqi

    by asim riaz siddiqi on Apr 7, 2013 at 11:29 pm

  62. I really appreciate this blog that is full of experiences in research and development and this will enable us to exploit our local resources in bio resources especially in methods of making “Biorganic fertilizer(BOF)”.This site help me a lot in making my research on how to produce organic fertilizer using sugarcane bagasse, Thank and really appreciate. U.M JAJERE

    by Mohammed Jajere Usman on Nov 24, 2013 at 12:30 am

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