Straw Mushroom Production


Posted by Manny on April 28th, 2008

straw mushroomsMushrooms are fleshy, spore bearing fungi. These spores germinate under favorable conditions to microscopic filaments which branch to form a mycelium. Fusion of compatible mycelia gives rise to fruiting bodies. Nutritionally, mushrooms are called saprophyte and obtain their food from non-living matter. Carbon and nitrogen sources including other elements available in the substrates support vegetative growth and fruiting development of the fungi.

The fast-growing mushrooms are good source of delicious food with high nutritional attributes like proteins, essential amino acids, fats, vitamins, carbohydrates and fibers, and some have medicinal values as well. The art of mushroom propagation has advanced dramatically in the past decades due to the techniques of spawn preparation, wide selection of low cost materials and availability of agro-industrial wastes used as growing substrates.

PREPARATION OF POTATO-DEXTROSE-AGAR (PDA)

Raw Materials

Fresh good quality potatoes 200 g
Dextrose powder 20 g
Agar bar (gulaman) 20 g
Distilled water 1 L

Procedure

  1. Wash, peel and dice the potatoes. Place 200 g in a casserole where water has started to boil and allow to boil until potatoes are soft enough for the pallate.
  2. Strain the broth (decoction) through cheesecloth. Restore the volume of decoction to 1 L and put back into the casserole.
  3. Add the agar (chipped) and the dextrose powder. Heat while stirring occasionally until the agar dissolves.
  4. Dispense 30 mL in each flat rhum bottle and plug the mouth with the bottle cotton.
  5. Sterilize the medium in a pressure cooker at 121°C or 15-lb. pressure for 15 minutes. Immediately after sterilization, slant the test tubes at an angle of 20 to 25 degrees, making sure that the agar does not touch the cotton plug.
  6. Lay the bottles flat on the table until the agar congeals.

ISOLATION OF THE PURE CULTURE (by Tissue Culture Method)

Tissue Culture Method (Volvariella volvaceae)

  1. Select a good, young, healthy and fresh mushroom (button stage for straw mushroom). Disinfect with 70% rubbing alcohol using a cotton swab.
  2. Cut vertically and horizontally half portion of the button stage mushroom.
  3. With a sterilized scalpel, cut approximately 1- cm cube to the tissue between the cap and stem and place on the middle of the plated agar.
  4. Incubate for 5 to 7 days at ordinary temperature. This is termed as pure tissue culture.
  5. Transfer the pure culture into agar slants.
  6. Incubate for 5 to 7 days at ordinary temperature. This is now termed as sub-culture.

PREPARATION OF SPAWN SUBSTRATES

  1. Place chopped dried substrate; i.e., rice straw, banana, leguminous leaves in a suitable container and add water until completely submerged. Place something heavy on top to avoid floatation.
  2. Ferment substrate anaerobically in water with urea (3 grams per gallon of water) as follows:
    • chopped, dried tobacco midribs – 3 days
    • chopped, dried kakawati leaves – 5 days
    • chopped, dried ipil-ipil leaves – 5 days
    • chopped, dried rice straw – 3 days
    • chopped, dried water lily – 2 days
    • chopped, dried banana leaves – 3 days
  3. Wash the substrate with tap water three times or until objectionable odor is removed.
  4. Mix with sawdust at a proportion of two parts substrate to one (2:1) part sawdust.
  5. Add rice bran (Class A) at 20% of the major substrate.
  6. Readjust the moisture at 65% to 70% (damp moisture).
  7. Place substrates in polypropylene bags (PP) and 500 g/bag. Use 6×10 PP bags and pull-end of the bag, pass thru a PVC pipe ring (1” long x 1” dia.) Plug with used cotton, cover with scratch paper and tie with a rubber band.
  8. Sterilize at 15-lb. pressure for 1 to 1½ hours or steam for 4 hours in a drum.
  9. Cool, inoculate with pure culture.

INOCULATION OF THE SPAWN

  1. Sterilize the inoculating needle in the flame of an alcohol lamp.Lift from the inoculum about 1.5 cm² and transfer into the bagged substrate.
  2. Flame the lip of the bag as well as the lip of the rhum bottle containing the inoculum before lifting a portion for transfer.
  3. The inoculum substrate is now termed spawn and is ready for planting into beds after two weeks.

BACKYARD PLANTING OF STRAW MUSHROOM

Materials

Mushroom spawn of good quality
Bedding materials (rice straw/banana leaves)
Urea ( fertilizer)
Plastic sheet (5m/3 m bed)
Soaking vessels
Benlate (fungicide)

Procedure

  1. Gather good quality substrates (dried rice straw and dried banana leaves).
  2. Arrange the substrates, bundle with plastic straw in the middle to about 4” diameter. Have the substrate cut to 18” length.
  3. Soak the bundled substrates in clean, tap water for a considerable period of time. Rice straw requires 3-4 hours soaking while banana leaves require 10-12 hours soaking. This procedure renders the substrate pliable. It allows sufficient water supply required for the growth of mold during its incubation period. Do not oversoak the material.
  4. While the material is being soaked, prepare the bed foundation. This could either be made of soil, wood or concrete. Most economical and practical is soil foundation. This is done by making a foundation similar to a garden plot which should be east-west oriented under a partially shaded area.
  5. Prepare the fertilized paper (old newspaper) soaked in 3g urea/gal of water for 10-20 minutes.
  6. After the completion of the required soaking period, haul the materials from the soaking vessel and allow excess water to drain freely.
  7. Lay the substrates on the bed foundation and make up 3 to 4 layers during the dry season and 5 to 7 layers during the rainy season. Make the first layer by closely laying enough soaked substrates side by side until the whole length of the plot is covered.
  8. Distribute pieces of half-squeezed fertilized paper only along the edges of the laid substrates.
  9. Distribute spawn (300 g) to the layers of a 3-m bed. Place a thumb-sized spawn on the top of each piece of distributed fertilized paper. Keep a 2-3” distance between spawns.
  10. Repeat the preceding procedure as you make the second, third and succeeding layers.
  11. Cover the entire bed with plastic sheet to assure temperature build-up and to retain the moisture required for the mushroom mold to ramify. This should be left intact for 5 days (dry season) or 7 days or more, depending on the existing climatic conditions (cool, rainy months).
  12. Aerate the bed on the 5th or 7th day after the incubation period by removing the plastic cover. This will allow the release of toxic gases which may affect the growth of mushroom. In cases of storm, heavy rain or too windy a place, raising the plastic sheet for less than an hour in the morning is sufficient.
  13. Return the plastic sheet cover, but never allow this to touch the pinheads to avoid spoilage of mushroom.

Care and Management
High yielding mushroom beds depend on three interrelated factors: good quality spawns, preparation of bed and care and management. More tips follow:

  1. Keep the surrounding clean.
  2. Keep the bed moist if necessary. Do this by spraying with clean water making sure that it does not exert pressure to avoid breaking the thread-like structures spreading on the substrates.
  3. DO NOT WATER THE BEDS WHEN PINHEADS APPEAR. This will give way to early decomposition of fruits.
  4. Picking up mushrooms would be realized on the 14th and 21st day depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. When picking/harvesting, do not use any sharp tools to remove the fruit from the substrate. Hold the base of the mushroom with bare hands and apply a simple twisting motion.
  5. In case the bed is infected with other kinds of molds or infested with insects, take the harvestable mushroom before applying the prescribed fungicide/insecticide and do this by spot spraying.
  6. Maintain the temperature of the bed at 32° to 35°C during the fruiting. No mushroom will fruit if temperature drops to 20°C. Mushrooms grown at higher temperature will be smaller and lighter in weight.
  7. After a lapse of one month, discard used substrates (spent bed).

Source: mis.dost.gov.ph

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Posted by Manny

Manny Montala was an online entrepreneur who enjoys blogging about entrepreneurship and gathering information for his blog to help budding entrepreneurs. Like this post? Why not share it with your friends on Facebook, Twitter, Google plus, LinkedIn and Pinterest? Scroll up and see social icons above then click and share!


47 Responses to “Straw Mushroom Production”

  1. Antonio says:

    May advetised po si Teddy laurie tungkol sa mushroom seminar at libreng consultation para sa mga gustong gawing negosyo ang pagkakabute at gustong magtayo ng mushroom farm http://www.sulit.com.ph/4145665

  2. Antonio says:

    Tama ka mushroom king, as of now nakapagproduced na ako ng apat na variety of mushroom Florida, sajor-caju, ganoderma lucidum at straw mushroom (kabuteng saging) Kumukuha po ako ng culture at spawn sa pinagkakatiwalaan ko at nagtuturo sa akin frm start to finish hindi po nya ako pinabayaan hanggang sa akoy makapagproduce.

  3. I absolutely agree with you 111% maraming gustong kumita sa pagkakabute bakit hindi kayo magbasa mag saliksik libre lang ang technology. Nasa internet lang ang lahat. Ako ay hindi nagtuturo namamahagi lang ng informasyon.

  4. Antonio says:

    Humanap kayo ng tamang taong magseminar sa mushroom na sagot nya ang merkado sumubaybay sa kanyang mga nagiging studyante na talagang bng makakapagproduce ng tama, hindi nlang bastabasta ewan sa iri. Natuto lang ang mga yan ng kaunti magseseminar na kagad. Hwag kayo basta basta maniniwala dapat maginvestiga muna kayo. Napakamahal pa naman ang sinisingil nila sa seminar.

  5. Antonio says:

    Tama yan manuel,
    Marami kasing nagpapanggap na marunong after ng seminar iiwanan ka lang sa iri, yan ang style ng mga yan papasok sa mga comment section then magadvertised.

  6. Manuel says:

    @EARTHLING MUSHROOM GARDEN
    Please avoid spamming the comment section. If you want to advertise, just contact me.

  7. EARTHLING MUSHROOM GARDEN (EMG) says:

    Hands-on Training Seminars on Mushroom Production (using Tissue Culture of 7 Varieties: Oyster, Abalone, Shitakei, Angel, Sajur Caju, Ganoderma Lucidum & Kabuting Saging)

    Date/Day/Time: Daily, 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM
    Venue: Brgy. Sto Nino, Modeata Village, San Mateo, Rizal & Green Gate Homes, Brgy. Malagasang, Imus, Cavite

    Book your confirmed attendance with Anne Valencia-Quitan, EMG Marketing Coordinator, Mobile Phone No. 0928 7341 350
    Email Ad: annabelle_quitan@yahoo.com

  8. simon says:

    yap i tried the procedure but failed, dont now why, can you send me picture on the procedure? and, is this procedure applicable to any kind of mushroom? thanks and good day

  9. Anne Valencia says:

    Hands-on Training Seminars on Mushroom Production (using Tissue Culture of 7 Varieties: Oyster, Abalone, Shitakei, Angel, Sajur Caju, Ganoderma Lucidum & Kabuting Saging)

    Date/Day/Time: Daily, 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM
    Venue: Brgy. Sto Nino, Modeata Village, San Mateo, Rizal & Brgy. Esperanza Ibaba, Alfonso, Cavite

    Book your confirmed attendance with Anne Valencia-Quitan, EMG Marketing Coordinator, Mobile Phone No. 0928 7341 350
    Email Ad: annabelle_quitan@yahoo.com

  10. If you wanted just to learn the mushroom spawn making you can go to other websites and do some research. Spoon feeding learning is not good idea. You must consider the researcher has paid a lot of time, money and effort just to come up in a simple ways of producing spawn mushroom. Oyster Mushroom will grow all year round in the Philippines. It needs cool shaded atmosphere. Like in Florida USA or Mexico Oyster Mushroom can grow in cool environment there are many ways to do it in a practical way and not using air conditioner. There are no freebies in learning you must pay in order to gain access to the right source.

  11. I want to produce mushroom spawns however, i don’t know the proper procedure / steps and materials needed (simple ways). Any help?

  12. magalangmushroomfarmville.weebly.com, fellow growers I hope you found the easiest way in growing spawn and using rice straw, cornstalks, corn cobs and sugar bagasse. All we know is thru PDA for me not any more.

  13. romer m. tordillos says:

    Dear Prof Medalla:
    I would like to ask if you sell mushroom seeds (or seedlings). And if so, can i order the same by mail? Going to your place or attending the seminar may not be possible for a time being due to work and location. I am from Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur (Mindanao).

    Thank you

  14. Angie P. Medalla says:

    Hello to all mushroom growers and hobbyist! this is Prof. Medalla of Rizal Technological Univ.Boni Ave.,Mandaluyong City.
    If you want mushroom pure cultures,spawns and fruiting bags of Pleurotus spp.,you can avail them in our research center.We grow mushrooms in tunnels.We also conduct a comprehensive training and seminar on mushroom growing of all species cultivated in the Phil.
    For any inquiries you can call at 5438467 loc 123.

  15. sharry ann santos ganareal says:

    im so proud of people who make waste a productive ways to earn, we should harness all our energies to fight poverty we need people like you to make us empowered and make things renewed as we welcome the new era of rewable and green energy.

    please help us to avail spawn for banana leaves of teach us to prepare.

    thank you so much and more power

  16. Mario says:

    sir may alam po ba kayong information kung saan makakabili ng shiitake spawn? feasib po kasi namin siya dati ngayon ay binabalak na po naming itayo as business… planning stages pa lang naman po kami pero just in case para may makukuhanan kami… eto contact no. ko – 09499303084

  17. Yusuf says:

    hello, i’m yusuf form indonesia, i can’t production of mushrom oyster/straw mushroom.

    whit this i need investor for this planning.

    my phone number : +62 81318113747

  18. Anne Valencia-Quitan says:

    One day Hands-on Training Seminar For Technicians – Innovative Mushroom Spawn Production – PhP 5,000 per person

    Venue: EMG Mushroom Growing House, Yellow Gate, Brgy. Tagapo, Sta. Rosa, Laguna (located in front of New Sinai MDI Hospital & beside
    Dictado Cockpit Arena near Robinson’s & SM Sta. Rosa Malls)

    Book your confirmed attendance with Anne Valencia-Quitan, EMG Marketing Coordinator, Mobile Phone No. 0928 7341 350
    Email Ad: annabelle_quitan@yahoo.com

  19. Anne Valencia-Quitan says:

    EARTHLING MUSHROOM GARDEN, BRGY.TAGAPO, STA. ROSA, LAGUNA

    FOR SALE: BOTTLED SPAWN OF ANGEL & OYSTER WHITE MUSHROOM VARIETIES @ PhP 40.00 PER BOTTLE, PICK UP PRICE, MINIMUM VOLUME OF 20 BOTTLES & 50% ADVANCE PAYMENT

    CONTACT PERSONS & NOS.: ANNE V. QUITAN, MP NO. 09287341350 & ROBERT VERSOZA, MP NO. 09206118418

  20. Anne Valencia-Quitan says:

    Hands-on Training Seminar on Mushroom Production (using Tissue Culture of 4 Varieties: Oyster White Florida, Abalone White, Shitakei & Ganoderma Lucidum):

    Date/Day/Time: Dec 18 (Saturday) & Dec 27 (Monday), 2010 @ 9:30 AM to 4:30 PM
    Venue: EMG Mushroom Growing House, Yellow Gate, Brgy. Tagapo, Sta. Rosa, Laguna (located in front of New Sinai MDI Hospital & beside
    Dictado Cockpit Arena near Robinson’s & SM Sta. Rosa Malls)

    Book your confirmed attendance with Anne Valencia-Quitan, EMG Marketing Coordinator, Mobile Phone No. 0928 7341 350
    Email Ad: annabelle_quitan@yahoo.com

    EMG Services offered:
    Hands-on Training Seminars; Sale of Training Manual, Spawn, Substrate, Fruiting Bags (with & with out inoculated spawn), fresh sprouts of Pleurotus Florida (oyster & abalone) & shitakei varieties; dried Ganoderma Lucidum (red mushroom) in 10 gram packs; mushroom patties & atsara; & consultancy on mushroom business (small to large scale) operation

    Contact Person: Rodolfo T. Versoza, EMG Operations Manager
    Mobile Phone No. 09206118418
    Email Ad: dolfax@yahoo.com

  21. Rim says:

    Dear sir

    I am now trying to make spawn by my seft as i follow by your site.
    but, i am not clear to do it yet, so i want you sending any Picture with are revelant to processing.

    Thanks you

    Regards,

    Rim

  22. saman ranathunga says:

    gides for growing mushroom

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