Straw Mushroom Production

Posted by Manny on April 28th, 2008

straw mushroomsMushrooms are fleshy, spore bearing fungi. These spores germinate under favorable conditions to microscopic filaments which branch to form a mycelium. Fusion of compatible mycelia gives rise to fruiting bodies. Nutritionally, mushrooms are called saprophyte and obtain their food from non-living matter. Carbon and nitrogen sources including other elements available in the substrates support vegetative growth and fruiting development of the fungi.

The fast-growing mushrooms are good source of delicious food with high nutritional attributes like proteins, essential amino acids, fats, vitamins, carbohydrates and fibers, and some have medicinal values as well. The art of mushroom propagation has advanced dramatically in the past decades due to the techniques of spawn preparation, wide selection of low cost materials and availability of agro-industrial wastes used as growing substrates.


Raw Materials

Fresh good quality potatoes 200 g
Dextrose powder 20 g
Agar bar (gulaman) 20 g
Distilled water 1 L


  1. Wash, peel and dice the potatoes. Place 200 g in a casserole where water has started to boil and allow to boil until potatoes are soft enough for the pallate.
  2. Strain the broth (decoction) through cheesecloth. Restore the volume of decoction to 1 L and put back into the casserole.
  3. Add the agar (chipped) and the dextrose powder. Heat while stirring occasionally until the agar dissolves.
  4. Dispense 30 mL in each flat rhum bottle and plug the mouth with the bottle cotton.
  5. Sterilize the medium in a pressure cooker at 121°C or 15-lb. pressure for 15 minutes. Immediately after sterilization, slant the test tubes at an angle of 20 to 25 degrees, making sure that the agar does not touch the cotton plug.
  6. Lay the bottles flat on the table until the agar congeals.

ISOLATION OF THE PURE CULTURE (by Tissue Culture Method)

Tissue Culture Method (Volvariella volvaceae)

  1. Select a good, young, healthy and fresh mushroom (button stage for straw mushroom). Disinfect with 70% rubbing alcohol using a cotton swab.
  2. Cut vertically and horizontally half portion of the button stage mushroom.
  3. With a sterilized scalpel, cut approximately 1- cm cube to the tissue between the cap and stem and place on the middle of the plated agar.
  4. Incubate for 5 to 7 days at ordinary temperature. This is termed as pure tissue culture.
  5. Transfer the pure culture into agar slants.
  6. Incubate for 5 to 7 days at ordinary temperature. This is now termed as sub-culture.


  1. Place chopped dried substrate; i.e., rice straw, banana, leguminous leaves in a suitable container and add water until completely submerged. Place something heavy on top to avoid floatation.
  2. Ferment substrate anaerobically in water with urea (3 grams per gallon of water) as follows:
    • chopped, dried tobacco midribs – 3 days
    • chopped, dried kakawati leaves – 5 days
    • chopped, dried ipil-ipil leaves – 5 days
    • chopped, dried rice straw – 3 days
    • chopped, dried water lily – 2 days
    • chopped, dried banana leaves – 3 days
  3. Wash the substrate with tap water three times or until objectionable odor is removed.
  4. Mix with sawdust at a proportion of two parts substrate to one (2:1) part sawdust.
  5. Add rice bran (Class A) at 20% of the major substrate.
  6. Readjust the moisture at 65% to 70% (damp moisture).
  7. Place substrates in polypropylene bags (PP) and 500 g/bag. Use 6×10 PP bags and pull-end of the bag, pass thru a PVC pipe ring (1” long x 1” dia.) Plug with used cotton, cover with scratch paper and tie with a rubber band.
  8. Sterilize at 15-lb. pressure for 1 to 1½ hours or steam for 4 hours in a drum.
  9. Cool, inoculate with pure culture.


  1. Sterilize the inoculating needle in the flame of an alcohol lamp.Lift from the inoculum about 1.5 cm² and transfer into the bagged substrate.
  2. Flame the lip of the bag as well as the lip of the rhum bottle containing the inoculum before lifting a portion for transfer.
  3. The inoculum substrate is now termed spawn and is ready for planting into beds after two weeks.



Mushroom spawn of good quality
Bedding materials (rice straw/banana leaves)
Urea ( fertilizer)
Plastic sheet (5m/3 m bed)
Soaking vessels
Benlate (fungicide)


  1. Gather good quality substrates (dried rice straw and dried banana leaves).
  2. Arrange the substrates, bundle with plastic straw in the middle to about 4” diameter. Have the substrate cut to 18” length.
  3. Soak the bundled substrates in clean, tap water for a considerable period of time. Rice straw requires 3-4 hours soaking while banana leaves require 10-12 hours soaking. This procedure renders the substrate pliable. It allows sufficient water supply required for the growth of mold during its incubation period. Do not oversoak the material.
  4. While the material is being soaked, prepare the bed foundation. This could either be made of soil, wood or concrete. Most economical and practical is soil foundation. This is done by making a foundation similar to a garden plot which should be east-west oriented under a partially shaded area.
  5. Prepare the fertilized paper (old newspaper) soaked in 3g urea/gal of water for 10-20 minutes.
  6. After the completion of the required soaking period, haul the materials from the soaking vessel and allow excess water to drain freely.
  7. Lay the substrates on the bed foundation and make up 3 to 4 layers during the dry season and 5 to 7 layers during the rainy season. Make the first layer by closely laying enough soaked substrates side by side until the whole length of the plot is covered.
  8. Distribute pieces of half-squeezed fertilized paper only along the edges of the laid substrates.
  9. Distribute spawn (300 g) to the layers of a 3-m bed. Place a thumb-sized spawn on the top of each piece of distributed fertilized paper. Keep a 2-3” distance between spawns.
  10. Repeat the preceding procedure as you make the second, third and succeeding layers.
  11. Cover the entire bed with plastic sheet to assure temperature build-up and to retain the moisture required for the mushroom mold to ramify. This should be left intact for 5 days (dry season) or 7 days or more, depending on the existing climatic conditions (cool, rainy months).
  12. Aerate the bed on the 5th or 7th day after the incubation period by removing the plastic cover. This will allow the release of toxic gases which may affect the growth of mushroom. In cases of storm, heavy rain or too windy a place, raising the plastic sheet for less than an hour in the morning is sufficient.
  13. Return the plastic sheet cover, but never allow this to touch the pinheads to avoid spoilage of mushroom.

Care and Management
High yielding mushroom beds depend on three interrelated factors: good quality spawns, preparation of bed and care and management. More tips follow:

  1. Keep the surrounding clean.
  2. Keep the bed moist if necessary. Do this by spraying with clean water making sure that it does not exert pressure to avoid breaking the thread-like structures spreading on the substrates.
  3. DO NOT WATER THE BEDS WHEN PINHEADS APPEAR. This will give way to early decomposition of fruits.
  4. Picking up mushrooms would be realized on the 14th and 21st day depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. When picking/harvesting, do not use any sharp tools to remove the fruit from the substrate. Hold the base of the mushroom with bare hands and apply a simple twisting motion.
  5. In case the bed is infected with other kinds of molds or infested with insects, take the harvestable mushroom before applying the prescribed fungicide/insecticide and do this by spot spraying.
  6. Maintain the temperature of the bed at 32° to 35°C during the fruiting. No mushroom will fruit if temperature drops to 20°C. Mushrooms grown at higher temperature will be smaller and lighter in weight.
  7. After a lapse of one month, discard used substrates (spent bed).


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Posted by Manny

Manny Montala was an online entrepreneur who enjoys blogging about entrepreneurship and gathering information for his blog to help budding entrepreneurs. Like this post? Why not share it with your friends on Facebook, Twitter, Google plus, LinkedIn and Pinterest? Scroll up and see social icons above then click and share!

47 Responses to “Straw Mushroom Production”

  1. marlo says:


    Thank you very much for featuring mushroom production; I am interested in this as a livelihood project in the near future.

    How I wish to receive more information anything about mushrooms, including production, management, potential market etc.

  2. marlo says:


    Thank you very much for featuring mushroom production; I am interested in this as a livelihood project in the near future.

    How I wish to receive more information — anything about mushrooms, including production, management, potential market etc.

  3. Manuel says:

    thanks Marlo for your comments. I try to find more about mushrooms in my future posts.

  4. Dong J. KIM says:

    Thanks for your good article.

    I want to try to grow Straw mushroom in a small green house
    with a hot pad and hot water
    humidifier, but I wonder whether
    I can buy the sub-culture stage
    one in a rhum bottle, just before INOCULATION OF THE SPAWN?
    If I can, could you tell me
    net volume of the sub-culture and how much Kg of grain I can
    inoculate, please?
    (Kg of dry grain before steam
    You can also tell me the price including the culture and
    express air mail(not UPS or DHL)
    to Mxico, and how many days to
    be delivered.
    May I expect a reply ASAP ?
    Many thanks.
    Dong KIM

  5. Manuel says:

    Hello Dong J. Kim,

    Sorry I’m no expert on this. I’m just blogging about it.

  6. Dong J. KIM says:

    Thanks for your prompt reply to
    my e-mail address, too.
    If you can refer to a reliable source who can supply
    the (sub-)culture, just leave a
    notice, please.
    I had a filipino site before,
    but I cann’t find it now.
    Thanks again.
    Dong KIM

  7. carlo says:

    this is a nice blog,very informative,im interested for mushroom culture i hope this info will help a lot.thanks

  8. bodgie vera cruz says:

    hello everyone,
    please visit our site
    we are based in tarlac city, batangas ,laguna.
    our products:

    volva spawn
    pleurotus spawn & fruiting bags
    starter packages for volva cultivation available thru lbc

    our services:

    seminars (anywhere in the philippines or abroad)
    contact no. 0916 995 2445

    now available: (start learning at home)
    video of mushroom production
    available for download
    or thru lbc

  9. som socheath says:


    I am not sure how to pick the tissue from straw mushroom (button stage), could you provide us the picture or video for our follow up.

    Thanks and best regards,


  10. briand luke says:

    thanks for this post..
    it really raised my interest for growing mushroom..
    i will be trying it..
    it is such a great help…
    thanks a lot..

  11. Evalou B. Talosig says:

    planting, harvesting,distribution process, marketing process of musroom. at makano poh ang bentahan ng spawn mushroom?

  12. Smartlerneo says:

    I am one of the straw mushroom spawn producer. I am intrested your webside and new technology for optimization of production cost. So I would like to known about this in detail. I will be glad to received this .

  13. Manuel says:

    For suppliers info, check below:

    Mushroom Seeds, Supplies and other information

    Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI)
    Ms. Estrella D. Tuazon
    Chief, Plant Quarantine Service
    San Andres, Malate, Manila City
    Tel No. (632) 523-9132
    Fax No. (632) 524-2812

    Mushroom Producers Association of the Philippines, Inc.
    c/o Daily Harvest Manufacturing Corporation
    21 Railroad Street, Port Area, Manila
    Tel. No. (632) 442-5074

  14. lance navoa says:

    im willing to share info more about mushroom culture just txt lang po me 09295977477 thanks

  15. Tezerash says:

    It is not clear. Please clarify more.

  16. evalou says:

    pls give me a pic regarding on the steps og mushroom production…T.Y! & more Power

  17. Ernie Machate says:

    in one of your tv show “kabuhayan swak na swak” you show how to raise mushroom in a plastic bag with saw dust as medium. please me know how to do that, so i can raise my own for home consumption.

  18. Mush says:

    I sprayed my button and shiitake mushrooms with high concentrate fungicide and it grow rapidly.

  19. D J Kim says:

    Mr. Manuel;

    Sometime ago you showed 2 references from where we can
    get info for straw mushroom culture, but e-mail address of
    1) is wrong and mail bounced back.
    I was not able to call 2) from country side in Mexico.
    Could you provide us with right e-mail addresses of 1), 2)
    and also of government or private mushroom research
    centers where we can get spores, culture or spawn of straw
    mushroom, please ?
    Straw mushroom is abandent in south-east Asia and
    Philliphines is English speaking place, easy to communicate,
    but hard to get info ?! It’s a nonsense —
    The world is running and ready even to fly –
    Yours Sincerely,

    1)Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI)
    Ms. Estrella D. Tuazon

    2)Mushroom Producers Association of the Philippines, Inc.
    21 Railroad Street, Port Area, Manila
    Tel. No. (632) 442-5074

  20. Manuel says:

    @D J Kim

    So sorry for that. Maybe that is the reason why the Philippines is very far behind. I can’t promise anything but maybe this website will help

  21. D J Kim says:

    Mr. Manuel;
    Thanks for your prompt reply and I appreciate your
    deligency on your blog and the royalty to a person who
    left a comment in your blog.
    I found out a contact e-mail address,,, from
    you showed above, and I will contact them right away.

    My hobby like interst turned to a project in one of university. WHY: Trying to grow straw mushroom in
    North America was unsuccessful and failed, and other references.
    Only place you can try to grow straw mushroom is southern part US and middle- and northern part of Mexico
    (If you think it’s north America), but southern Califonia, Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas of USA and middle northern part of Mexico is like a desert(~semi desert) except Florida(** North America should be north from PANAMA, but it depends on what point of view people say(politically, economical sense, geophygical point of view and history.)

    My 2nd Why: The challenge: Nobody succeeded to grow
    in north America and anybody did try to grow mushroom
    in a desert, whether it’s failed or not– ? — We have to see–

    I will contact the e-mail and other potential e-mails,
    if I can get further references, but in case I will look for
    another sauces in Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar and
    Thanks your attention, DJ Kim

  22. Tracey Paquet says:


    I am a Shiitake mushroom grower and am looking for certified organic Shiitake spawn. Can you tell me if you have this available?

    Kind regards,

    Tracey Paquet

  23. Manuel says:

    @Tracey Paquet

    Sorry I’m only blogging about it and don’t have mushrooms for cultivation.

  24. KOY Serey says:

    I am really interested in growing rice straw mushroom, but I don’t have any experiences on how to prepare spawn substrates and the process of growing.

    By the way, I have read the instructions written in this website and am aware of it so it will be very good if there is an easy method of spawn preparation.

    If you have any ideas for sharing, please feel free to contact me.

    I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.

    My best regards,

    KOY Serey

  25. Al Vila says:

    Dear Sir/Madam,
    I am a OFW,planning to start a small home-business like mushroom raising in my lot.I want to know how and the things needed in order to start.And also contact agencies and people to inquire if any during my propagation..I would be grateful if you could help with my inquiries.I just saw this kind of business once in your show.And I didn’t have the chance to get the contacts.Thank you.

  26. saman ranathunga says:

    gides for growing mushroom

  27. Rim says:

    Dear sir

    I am now trying to make spawn by my seft as i follow by your site.
    but, i am not clear to do it yet, so i want you sending any Picture with are revelant to processing.

    Thanks you



  28. Anne Valencia-Quitan says:

    Hands-on Training Seminar on Mushroom Production (using Tissue Culture of 4 Varieties: Oyster White Florida, Abalone White, Shitakei & Ganoderma Lucidum):

    Date/Day/Time: Dec 18 (Saturday) & Dec 27 (Monday), 2010 @ 9:30 AM to 4:30 PM
    Venue: EMG Mushroom Growing House, Yellow Gate, Brgy. Tagapo, Sta. Rosa, Laguna (located in front of New Sinai MDI Hospital & beside
    Dictado Cockpit Arena near Robinson’s & SM Sta. Rosa Malls)

    Book your confirmed attendance with Anne Valencia-Quitan, EMG Marketing Coordinator, Mobile Phone No. 0928 7341 350
    Email Ad:

    EMG Services offered:
    Hands-on Training Seminars; Sale of Training Manual, Spawn, Substrate, Fruiting Bags (with & with out inoculated spawn), fresh sprouts of Pleurotus Florida (oyster & abalone) & shitakei varieties; dried Ganoderma Lucidum (red mushroom) in 10 gram packs; mushroom patties & atsara; & consultancy on mushroom business (small to large scale) operation

    Contact Person: Rodolfo T. Versoza, EMG Operations Manager
    Mobile Phone No. 09206118418
    Email Ad:

  29. Anne Valencia-Quitan says:



    CONTACT PERSONS & NOS.: ANNE V. QUITAN, MP NO. 09287341350 & ROBERT VERSOZA, MP NO. 09206118418

  30. Anne Valencia-Quitan says:

    One day Hands-on Training Seminar For Technicians – Innovative Mushroom Spawn Production – PhP 5,000 per person

    Venue: EMG Mushroom Growing House, Yellow Gate, Brgy. Tagapo, Sta. Rosa, Laguna (located in front of New Sinai MDI Hospital & beside
    Dictado Cockpit Arena near Robinson’s & SM Sta. Rosa Malls)

    Book your confirmed attendance with Anne Valencia-Quitan, EMG Marketing Coordinator, Mobile Phone No. 0928 7341 350
    Email Ad:

  31. Yusuf says:

    hello, i’m yusuf form indonesia, i can’t production of mushrom oyster/straw mushroom.

    whit this i need investor for this planning.

    my phone number : +62 81318113747

  32. Mario says:

    sir may alam po ba kayong information kung saan makakabili ng shiitake spawn? feasib po kasi namin siya dati ngayon ay binabalak na po naming itayo as business… planning stages pa lang naman po kami pero just in case para may makukuhanan kami… eto contact no. ko – 09499303084

  33. sharry ann santos ganareal says:

    im so proud of people who make waste a productive ways to earn, we should harness all our energies to fight poverty we need people like you to make us empowered and make things renewed as we welcome the new era of rewable and green energy.

    please help us to avail spawn for banana leaves of teach us to prepare.

    thank you so much and more power

  34. Angie P. Medalla says:

    Hello to all mushroom growers and hobbyist! this is Prof. Medalla of Rizal Technological Univ.Boni Ave.,Mandaluyong City.
    If you want mushroom pure cultures,spawns and fruiting bags of Pleurotus spp.,you can avail them in our research center.We grow mushrooms in tunnels.We also conduct a comprehensive training and seminar on mushroom growing of all species cultivated in the Phil.
    For any inquiries you can call at 5438467 loc 123.

  35. romer m. tordillos says:

    Dear Prof Medalla:
    I would like to ask if you sell mushroom seeds (or seedlings). And if so, can i order the same by mail? Going to your place or attending the seminar may not be possible for a time being due to work and location. I am from Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur (Mindanao).

    Thank you

  36., fellow growers I hope you found the easiest way in growing spawn and using rice straw, cornstalks, corn cobs and sugar bagasse. All we know is thru PDA for me not any more.

  37. I want to produce mushroom spawns however, i don’t know the proper procedure / steps and materials needed (simple ways). Any help?

  38. If you wanted just to learn the mushroom spawn making you can go to other websites and do some research. Spoon feeding learning is not good idea. You must consider the researcher has paid a lot of time, money and effort just to come up in a simple ways of producing spawn mushroom. Oyster Mushroom will grow all year round in the Philippines. It needs cool shaded atmosphere. Like in Florida USA or Mexico Oyster Mushroom can grow in cool environment there are many ways to do it in a practical way and not using air conditioner. There are no freebies in learning you must pay in order to gain access to the right source.

  39. Anne Valencia says:

    Hands-on Training Seminars on Mushroom Production (using Tissue Culture of 7 Varieties: Oyster, Abalone, Shitakei, Angel, Sajur Caju, Ganoderma Lucidum & Kabuting Saging)

    Date/Day/Time: Daily, 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM
    Venue: Brgy. Sto Nino, Modeata Village, San Mateo, Rizal & Brgy. Esperanza Ibaba, Alfonso, Cavite

    Book your confirmed attendance with Anne Valencia-Quitan, EMG Marketing Coordinator, Mobile Phone No. 0928 7341 350
    Email Ad:

  40. simon says:

    yap i tried the procedure but failed, dont now why, can you send me picture on the procedure? and, is this procedure applicable to any kind of mushroom? thanks and good day


    Hands-on Training Seminars on Mushroom Production (using Tissue Culture of 7 Varieties: Oyster, Abalone, Shitakei, Angel, Sajur Caju, Ganoderma Lucidum & Kabuting Saging)

    Date/Day/Time: Daily, 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM
    Venue: Brgy. Sto Nino, Modeata Village, San Mateo, Rizal & Green Gate Homes, Brgy. Malagasang, Imus, Cavite

    Book your confirmed attendance with Anne Valencia-Quitan, EMG Marketing Coordinator, Mobile Phone No. 0928 7341 350
    Email Ad:

  42. Manuel says:

    Please avoid spamming the comment section. If you want to advertise, just contact me.

  43. Antonio says:

    Tama yan manuel,
    Marami kasing nagpapanggap na marunong after ng seminar iiwanan ka lang sa iri, yan ang style ng mga yan papasok sa mga comment section then magadvertised.

  44. Antonio says:

    Humanap kayo ng tamang taong magseminar sa mushroom na sagot nya ang merkado sumubaybay sa kanyang mga nagiging studyante na talagang bng makakapagproduce ng tama, hindi nlang bastabasta ewan sa iri. Natuto lang ang mga yan ng kaunti magseseminar na kagad. Hwag kayo basta basta maniniwala dapat maginvestiga muna kayo. Napakamahal pa naman ang sinisingil nila sa seminar.

  45. I absolutely agree with you 111% maraming gustong kumita sa pagkakabute bakit hindi kayo magbasa mag saliksik libre lang ang technology. Nasa internet lang ang lahat. Ako ay hindi nagtuturo namamahagi lang ng informasyon.

  46. Antonio says:

    Tama ka mushroom king, as of now nakapagproduced na ako ng apat na variety of mushroom Florida, sajor-caju, ganoderma lucidum at straw mushroom (kabuteng saging) Kumukuha po ako ng culture at spawn sa pinagkakatiwalaan ko at nagtuturo sa akin frm start to finish hindi po nya ako pinabayaan hanggang sa akoy makapagproduce.

  47. Antonio says:

    May advetised po si Teddy laurie tungkol sa mushroom seminar at libreng consultation para sa mga gustong gawing negosyo ang pagkakabute at gustong magtayo ng mushroom farm

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